Recycling involves processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce usage, reduce air pollution and water pollution by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy.
Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, papers, metals, plastics, textiles, and electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting
or other reuse of biodegrable waste – such as food
or garden waste – is not typically considered recycling.
A stable supply of recyclable material is crucial for a recycling program to work and having a large. Three legislation options have been used to create such a supply: mandatory recycling collection, container deposit legislation, and refuse bans.
- Government-mandated demand
Legislation has also been used to increase and maintain a demand for recycled materials. Four methods of such legislation exist are minimum recycled content mandates, utilization rates, procurement policies, recycled product labeling.
The first stride for the process of recycle is collection a number of different systems have been implemented to collect recyclates from the general waste stream. These systems tend to lie along the spectrum of trade-off between public convenience and government ease and expense. The three main categories of collection are "drop-off centres", "buy-back centres" and "curbside collection".
The second stride in the recycle process is curbside collection that have many subtly different systems, which differ mostly on where in the process the recyclates are sorted and cleaned. The main categories are mixed waste collection, commingled recyclables and source separation. A waste collection vehicle generally picks up the waste.
Sorting is the next process in recycling. Once commingled recyclates are collected and delivered to a central collection facility, the different types of materials must be sorted. This is done in a series of stages, many of which involve automated processes such that a truck-load of material can be fully sorted in less than an hour. Initially, the commingled recyclates are removed from the collection vehicle and placed on a conveyor belt spread out in a single layer. Next, automated machinery separates the recyclates by weight, aplitting lighter paper and plastic from heavier glass and metal into a proper collection channel. The strong magnets are used to separate outferrous metals, such as iron, steel, and tin-plated steel cans and the non-ferrous metals are ejected by magnetic eddy currents in which a rotating magnetic fields induces an electric current around the aluminium cans.
The last stride for the process of recycle is trade in recyclates. Certain countries trade in unprocessed recyclates. Some have complained that the ultimate fate of recyclates sold to another country is unknown and they may end up in landfills instead of reprocess.
Why materials are recycled??
A paper mill uses 40 less energy to make paper from recycled paper than it does to make fresh lumber. Total of energy is used in recycling depends largely on the type of material being recycled and the process used to do so.
The amount of money actually saved through recycling depends on efficiency of the recycling program used to do it such as landfill fees and the amount of disposal that the community recycles. The cost of recyclable materials also exceeds the cost of raw materials.
Recycling may create jobs with low wages and terrible working conditions. Recycling are sometimes considered to be make-work jobs that don't produce as much as the cost of wages to pay for those jobs.
The recycle paper are reduces tree population because paper companies have incentives to replenish the forests they own, large demands for paper lead to large forests.
Possible income loss and social costs
In some prosperous and many less prosperous countries in the world ,the traditional job of recycling is performed by the entrepreneurial poor such as the Karung guni, Zabaleen, the rag and bone man, waste picker , and junk man. The fewer people can decide if certain waste is more economically reusable in its current from rather than being reprocessed.
There are upper limits on the percentage of the world's newsprint that can be manufactured from recycled fiber. Some of the fiber that enters any recycled pulp mill is lost in pulping, due to inefficiencies inherent in the process.
What are may recycle???
- Aggregate and concrete
- Biodegrable waste
- Ferrous metal
- Non-ferrous metals
- And other…